Fernando Lozano Gomez, Anne Kolb, Marco Vitale (Hrsgg.): Kaiserkult in den Provinzen des Römischen Rei-ches. Organisation, Kommunikation und Repräsentation. in:

Gnomon, page 38 - 42

GNO, Volume 93 (2021), Issue 1, ISSN: 0017-1417, ISSN online: 0017-1417,

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L. E. Roller: Dubosson-Sbriglione, Le culte de la Mère des dieux 38 only during the late Empire, many centuries after the goddess’s cult was introduced into Rome? Why is it attested almost exclusively in the western Empire, when the deity’s original home was in Asia Minor? Why did the taurobolium bring prestige to those who performed it, when much of Roman literature presents a negative picture of the Magna Mater cult? These wider questions may never be answered satisfactorily but they should be addressed if we are to understand the prominent role of the Magna Mater cult in Roman society and Roman religious practice. For all the extensive detail with which the principal topics are treated, the author never really gets to the heart of the question as to why the Magna Mater cult, a cult for a foreign and eastern deity, enjoyed such a wide following in the western Empire. As a result, our understanding of the Magna Mater cult is not greatly advanced. Graillot’s 1912 book is certainly in need of revision, but this study does not fulfill that goal. Davis, CA Lynn E. Roller * Anne Kolb, Marco Vitale (Hrsgg.): Kaiserkult in den Provinzen des Römischen Reiches. Organisation, Kommunikation und Repräsentation. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter 2016. IX, 512 S. zahlr. Abb. There is currently a vast number of new publications dedicated to the study of the imperial cult, a state of affairs that is by no means new. In fact, over 20 years ago G. Alföldy already noted that judging by the number of extant testimonies and academic writings on the subject, imperial cult should be considered the most important type of worship during the Roman imperial period.1 Since the appearance of S. Price’s ‘Rituals and Power’ in 1984, which is perhaps the most outstanding monograph on emperor worship – and still the most useful theoretical framework at least regarding the Greek East – most of these studies have been based on local or regional approaches.2 Price himself insisted on how necessary these types of approaches were in order to remedy the situation in which research in this field was floundering at the time.3 (Notwithstanding the fact that Price developed and even, one could say, went beyond the interpretive line that K. Hopkins had begun to pursue shortly before in his ‘Divine Emperors or the Symbolic Unity of the Roman Empire’, included in ‘Conquerors and Slaves’).4 Following swiftly in Price’s footsteps, in his monumental work on the imperial cult in the West Fishwick stressed the need for regional and local studies.5 A review of monographs on the imperial cult published to date indicates that, over the past two –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1 G. Alföldy, ‘Subject and ruler, subjects and methods: an attempt at a conclusion’, in A. Small (ed.), ‘Subject and Ruler: The Cult of the Ruling Power in Classical Antiquity’, Ann Arbor, 1996, p. 255. 2 S.R.F. Price, ‘Rituals and Power. The Roman imperial cult in Asia Minor’, Cambridge, 1984. 3 Price, 1984, p. 20. 4 K. Hopkins, ‘Conquerors and Slaves’, Cambridge, 1978, p. 197–241. 5 D. Fishwick, ‘The Imperial Cult in the Latin West’, vols. I–III, Leiden, 1987–2005 (cit. vol. I.1, p. IX). GNOMON 1/93/2021 F. Lozano Gomez: Kolb/Vitale (Hrsgg.), Kaiserkult in den Provinzen 39 decades, most have been performed at this level.1 Thus, other types of approaches that aimed at offering an overview of the imperial cult in the Empire as a whole, whether during a specific period or throughout the Principate, have fallen by the wayside. I am referring here to studies such as those performed by Taylor and Cerfaux and Tondriau, among others.2 There have been, of course, exceptions to the rule, one of the most outstanding being, to my mind, M. Clauss’ audacious and original contribution to the ongoing debate which, nonetheless, does not always hit the mark.3 Other briefer works helping to ponder on this practice have been penned by Woolf, Gordon and Galinsky.4 The same can be said of Burrell’s research, although in this case focusing solely on the East.5 The collective work reviewed here thus falls into the category of the most frequently performed studies at present (despite the fact that, at least as regards its conception and title, its purpose was to move beyond the regional/provincial context and offer a general overview). Therefore it is in line with recent collective –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1 See, for instance: Achaia: M. Kantiréa, ‘Les dieux et les dieux augustes. Le culte impérial en Grèce sous les Julio-claudiens et les Flaviens’, Athens, 2007; F. Lozano, ‘Un dios entre los hombres. La adoración a los emperadores romanos en Grecia’, Barcelona, 2010, and F. Camia, ‘Theoi Sebastoi. Il culto degli imperatori romani in Grecia (Provincia Achaia) nel secondo secolo D.C.’, Athens, 2011. Asia Minor: T. Witulski, ‘Kaiserkult in Kleinasien. Die Entwicklung der kultisch-religiösen Kaiserverehrung in der römischen Provinz Asia. Von Augustus bis Antoninus Pius’, Göttingen, 2007, and G. Frija, ‘Les Prêtes des empereurs. Le culte impérial civique dans la province romaine d’Asie’, Rennes, 2012. Cyprus: T. Fujii, ‘Imperial Cult and Imperial Representation in Roman Cyprus’, Stuttgart, 2013. Egypt: P. Herklotz, ‘Prinzeps und Pharao. Der Kult des Augustus in Ägypten’, Frankfurt, 2007; S. Pfeiffer, ‘Der römische Kaiser und das Land am Nil. Kaiserverehrung und Kaiserkult in Alexandria und Ägypten von Augustus bis Caracalla (30 v. Chr. – 217 n. Chr.)’, Stuttgart, 2010, and N. Dörner, ‘Feste und Opfer für den Gott Caesar. Kommunikationsprozesse im Rahmen des Kaiserkultes im römischen Ägypten der julisch-claudischen Zeit (30 v. Chr.–68 n. Chr.)’, Rahden, 2014. Italy: I. Gradel, ‘Emperor Worship and Roman Religion’, Oxford, 2002. Lycia: D. Reitzenstein, ‘Die lykischen Bundespriester. Repräsentation der kaiserzeitlichen Elite in Lykien’, Berlin, 2011. Syria: H. Bru, ‘Le pouvoir impérial dans les provinces syriennes. Représentations et célébrations d’Auguste à Constantin (31 av. J.-C. – 337 ap. J.- C.)’, Leiden-Boston, 2011, and M. Vitale, ‘Koinon Syrias: Priester, Gymnasiarchen und Metropoleis der Eparchien im kaiserzeitlichen Syrien’, Berlin, 2013. 2 L.R. Taylor, ‘The Divinity of the Roman Emperor’, Middletown, 1931. L. Cerfaux and J. Tondriau, ‘Un concurrent du christianisme. Le culte des souverains dans la civilisation greco-romaine’, Paris, 1957. See also the influential works of : A.D. Nock, ‘Studies in the Graeco-Roman beliefs of the empire’, JHS 45, 1925, p. 84–101, ‘Notes on Ruler-Cult, I–IV’, JHS 48, 1928, p. 21–43, and ‘Sunnaos theos’, HSPh 41, 1930, p. 1–62; C. Habicht, ‘Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte’, Munich, 1957, and F. Taeger, ‘Charisma. Studien zur Geschichte des antiken Herrscherkultes’, Stuttgart, 1957. 3 M. Clauss, ‘Kaiser und Gott: Herrscherkult im Römischen Reich’, Stuttgart-Leipzig, 1999. 4 G. Woolf, ‘Divinity and power in Ancient Rome’, in N. Brisch (ed.), ‘Religion and power: divine kingship in the Ancient world and beyond’, Chicago, 2012, p. 243–259; R. Gordon, ‘The Roman imperial cult and the question of power’, in L. Golden (ed.), ‘Raising the Eyebrow: John Onians and World Art Studies. An Album Amicorum in His Honour’, Oxford, 2002, p. 107–22, and K. Galinsky, ‘The cult of the roman emperor: Uniter or divider?’, in J. Brodd and J.L. Reed (ed.), ‘Rome and religion: a cross-disciplinary dialogue on the imperial cult’, Atlanta, 2011, p. 1–21. 5 B. Burrell, ‘‹Neokoroi›. Greek Cities and Roman Emperors’, Leiden-Boston, 2004. GNOMON 1/93/2021 F. Lozano Gomez: Kolb/Vitale (Hrsgg.), Kaiserkult in den Provinzen 40 works, such as those co-ordinated by Iossif, Chankowski and Lorber, by Gnoli and Muccioli and by Lozano, Giménez and Alarcón.1 Needless to say, the main problem posed by works of this type is that they do not often offer joint conclusions, insofar as these ultimately lump together under a general title either individual research and case studies, which tend to address the way in which the imperial cult developed in a specific region or city, or studies of some or other aspect – festivals, rituals, sources, etc. – of emperor worship. A situation that is only sometimes rectified in part (as is the case here) thanks to the efforts made by editors to offer joint introductions and conclusions – just to give one example, I believe that Gnoli and Muccioli’s work is especially significant in this respect since it includes an exceedingly useful general introduction.2 The volume co-ordinated by Kolb and Vitale is not an exception in this sense as it is beset by the problems that can plague collective works, for it does not include any general conclusions, questions begged by all the contributions or interconnections between the authors and their works – which occasionally contradict each other as is the case with the contributions of Madsen and Holler in relation to the origin of the imperial cult in Bithynia and the explanations provided by Sorensen and Vitale for the organisation and character of the koina. Similarly, there is a lack of homogeneity in the use of the sources. The arguments deployed in some of the chapters are based primarily on very well-known and widely studied literary sources (e.g. Madsen’s and Sorensen’s contributions), those of most of the others are fundamentally grounded in epigraphic testimonies, those of yet others are based purely on archaeological data, while those of only a few draw on all the sources. Moreover, it is necessary to stress that the majority of the chapters focus on the East, for which reason the title does not fully correspond to the book’s subject matter. Likewise, it is unclear why the term ‘province’ has been used, when ‘Empire’ would have sufficed, since there are chapters relating to Rome and the Senate. Nor, for that matter, have allowances been made for the limitations that the concept of ‘province’ has for the study of emperor worship in the Empire.3 As already noted, insofar as most of these issues affect collective works in general, Kolb’s and Vitale’s volume is by no means an isolated case. It should be stressed, though, that these conundrums are resolved, albeit only in part, in the coordinators’ useful introduction which accounts for the main problems and the lines of research pursued. –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1 P.P. Iossif, A.S. Chankowski and C.C. Lorber (ed.), ‘More than men, less than gods: studies on royal cult and imperial worship’, Lovaine, 2011; T. Gnoli and F. Muccioli (ed.), ‘Divinizzazione, culto del sovrano e apoteosi. Tra Antichità e Medioevo’, Bologna, 2014, and F. Lozano, P. Giménez de Aragón and C. Alarcón, ‘Reyes y dioses. La realeza divina en las sociedades antiguas’, Madrid, 2015. 2 T. Gnoli and F. Muccioli, ‘Introduzione’, in. T. Gnoli and F. Muccioli (ed.), ‘Divinizzazione, culto del sovrano e apoteosi. Tra Antichità e Medioevo’, Bolonia, 2014, p. 11– 27. 3 See F. Lozano, ‘Emperor worship and Greek leagues: The organization of supra-civic imperial cult in the Roman East’, in E. Muñiz, J.M. Cortés and F. Lozano (ed.), ‘Empire and Religion. Religious Change in Greek Cities under Roman Rule’, Leiden-Boston, p. 149–176, and F. Camia, ‘Un culto imperiale ‘provinciale’ in Achaia? Riflessioni intorno a F. Lozano Go ́mez, Un dios entre los hombres. La adoracio ́n a los emperadores romanos en Grecia, Barcelona 2010’, ASAIA 90, p. 351–358. GNOMON 1/93/2021 F. Lozano Gomez: Kolb/Vitale (Hrsgg.), Kaiserkult in den Provinzen 41 The book, which has its origin in a congress held at the Universität Zürich in September 2014, is divided into five thematic sections totalling 21 chapters: I. ‘Besonderheiten, Genese und Entwicklung’ (pp. 19–155); II. ‘Städte und ihre Kulte’ (pp. 157–251); III. ‘Städtebünde und ihre Kulte’ (pp. 253–363); IV. ‘Lokale Eliten und Kaiserkult: Priesterinnen und Priester’ (pp. 365–405); and V. ‘Spätantike: Kontinuitäten – Ende des Kaiserkults?’ (pp. 407–496). As observed above, the monograph includes an introduction by the co-ordinators (‘Provinzen und ihre Kaiserkulte – Quellen, Probleme und Ergebnisse’, pp. 1–18), in addition to a number of indexes – literary, epigraphic, numismatic and papyrus sources – which are a great help when reading the book (‘Literarische Quellen und Inschriften, Münzen, Papyri’, pp. 498–512). The co-ordinators’ introduction is useful, for it acquaints readers with the topics and categories to be addressed, providing also a brief state of the question as a departure point and summary of the chapters. The first section, dedicated to the study of the particularities of the imperial cult, plus its advent and development, include chapters by J. M. Madsen (‘Who Introduced the Imperial Cult in Asia and Bithynia? The Koinon’s Role in the Early Worship of Augustus’, pp. 21–35), W. Eck (‘Der Senat und der Herrscherkult’, pp. 37–56), H. Bru (‘Le culte impérial dans l’Orient romain: mythes, rites et structures’, pp. 57–77), D. Campanile (‘Specificità delle origini e dello sviluppo del culto imperiale in Licia’, pp. 79–95), F. Battistoni (‘Dediche licie a Roma’, pp. 97–100), M. A. Speidel (‘Augustus-Tempel in Indien und im Partherreich? Zur Tabula Peutingeriana und zum römischen Kaiserkult ausserhalb des Römischen Reiches’, pp. 101–121), P. Herz (‘Die Agonistik und der Kaiserkult’, pp. 123–131) and D. Reitzenstein (‘Agonistik und Kaiserkult in Lykien’, pp. 133–155). The second section devoted to the imperial cult at a civic level includes contributions by G. Frija (‘Les cultes impériaux dans les cités d’Asie Mineure: des spécificités provinciales?’, pp. 159– 172), B. Holler (‘Poliskult und Provinzkult – Der Einfluss des Provinzkultes und die Homogenisierung durch den Herrscherkult für Octavian/Augustus in der Provinz Asia’, pp. 173–187), J. Dalaison (‘Néocorie et koinon: les attestations et représentations du culte impérial federal sur les monnaies provinciales romaines du nord de l’Asie mineure [Pont, Paphlagonie et Arménie mineure]’, pp. 189–228) and H. Wienholz (‘Eine severische Neokorie im Bacchustempel von Baalbek’, pp. 229–251). The third section focuses on the study of the federal imperial cult, including chapters by F. Camia (‘Between Tradition and Innovation: Cults for Roman Emperors in the Province of Achaia’, pp. 255–283), R. Bouchon (‘Les Thessaliens et le culte des empereurs de Rome: Tradition, intégration, polycentrisme et jeu d’échelles’, pp. 285–307), L. Cigaina (‘Der Kaiserkult bei den Kretern in Bezug auf ihre Teilhabe am Militärwesen des römischen Reiches’, pp. 309–336), S.L. Sorensen (‘The Bithynians again! The koina and their supposed involvement in cases of repetundae’, pp. 337–351) and M. Vitale (‘Provinciae als beschlussfassende Instanzen in Inschriften von Baetica bis Anatolien’, pp. 353–363). The fourth addresses the involvement of the local elites in the imperial cult through the study of priests and priestesses. This section, as the following one, is shorter with only two chapters: T. Bekker-Nielsen (‘Leading men’, pp. 367–386); and B. Edelmann-Singer (‘Die Kaiserpriesterinnen in den östlichen Provinzen des Reiches – Reflexionen über Titel, Funktion und Rolle’, pp. 387–405). The last thematic section is dedicated to examining the scope of the imperial cult in Late Antiquity, its continuity and its decline, with two chapters by A. Filippini (‘Fossili e contraddizioni dell’ ‘èra costantiniana’: i dignitari del culto imperiale nella Tarda Antichità e il loro ruolo nelle ‘riforme religiose’ di Massimino Daia e Giuliano’, pp. 410–475) and C. R. Raschle (‘Bis wann bleibt der Kaiser ‹Kult›? Die Verehrung des Kaiserbildes als Akt der Zivilreligion in der Spätantike’, pp. 477– 496). It should be noted that on the plus side the volume has got it right particularly as regards its structure, which successfully establishes the different levels of analysis addressed – general/East, federal and local – and with the inclusion of two chapters relating to the imperial cult in Late Antiquity. The book’s co-ordinators have also been capable of mustering some of the leading specialists in the field, the subjects covered are very diverse and, in the main, most have been analysed with GNOMON 1/93/2021 F. Lozano Gomez: Kolb/Vitale (Hrsgg.), Kaiserkult in den Provinzen 42 utmost rigour. As a result, it will be highly useful for scholars studying the imperial cult and an essential addendum to the literature. The interesting questions that are posed are too numerous to list here, so I will only mention some of the issues whose examination will provide readers with clear, solid and pertinent information for their research. For example, Madsen’s contribution will be useful for those interested in how the imperial cult came about, inasmuch as it puts forward a novel interpretation of the well-known passage in Cassius Dio (51, 20, 6–8) describing its advent in Bithynia and Asia and, by extension, in the rest of the Empire. Similarly, as regards the specific case of the koinon of Lycia, Campanile’s excellent chapter contains interesting reflections on the way in which this federation conducted its relations with Rome and the important role that the imperial cult played in these. Reitzenstein also deals with Lycia, one of the most comprehensively covered regions in the monograph, offering, in addition to a broad picture of the imperial games and their idiosyncrasies in each region, a very useful catalogue of festivals and games in Lycian cities (pp. 142–152). Also concerning the particularities of each region, in his chapter Cigaina establishes an intriguing link between the military tradition of Crete and the warlike elements appearing in both the island’s traditional cults and the new imperial rites. The chapters by F. Camia and R. Bouchon, two of the book’s most solid contributions, also revolve around the different regions and their singularities, orderly and clearly presenting a synthesis of the imperial cult in the province of Achaia and the region of Thessaly, respectively. In sum, I would like to underscore that, in spite of the concerns indicated above, the co-ordinators Anne Kolb and Marco Vitale, together with the rest of the authors, have managed to produce an interesting volume meeting high intellectual and academic standards. So, to my mind, it is a welcome and engaging contribution to a meaningful object of study such as the imperial cult at present. Sevilla Fernando Lozano Gomez * Heide Frielinghaus, Thomas Schattner (Hrsgg.): ad summum templum architecturae. Forschungen zur antiken Architektur im Spannungsfeld der Fragestellungen und Methoden. Möhnesee: Bibliopolis 2018. 227 S. 97 Taf. 4°. Der Titel dieser zweiten Festschrift für Burkhardt Wesenberg weckt die Hoffnung auf neue wissenschaftliche Äußerungen zu den lateinischen Begriffen summum templum und architectura; aber nur fünf der vierzehn Beiträge berühren Themen der Architekturtheorie und der allgemeinen Baugeschichte, davon allein derjenige von P. Gros (S. 177–187) mit definitorischen Fragen. Die drei lateinischen Begriffe des Buchtitels werden indessen nicht diskutiert. Summum templum kommt bei Vitruv zweimal vor: im ersten Buch (I.1,11) als Metapher für den höchsten Grad der Bildung in der Disziplin Architektur,1 im dritten Buch (III.4,4) steht templum für die oberste Stufe der Krepis eines Sakralbaus zuerst im physischen Sinne, vielleicht auch metaphorisch als Zentrum –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 1 ‘Georges. Lateinisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch’, Leipzig 1869, 419 s.v. architectura. GNOMON 1/93/2021

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